Friday, May 22, 2020

Microsoft Finance - 1077 Words

. *Microsoft’s Financial Reporting Strategy 1. What are the factors that likely explain the difference between Microsoft’s market value of equity and its reported book value of equity? The most obvious reason for the difference between the market value of equity and the book value of equity is the inability to record certain intangible assets such as brand value, customer loyalty, and perhaps most importantly, human capital. These intangible assets are likely to provide tremendous earnings growth in the future which determines the company’s market value. Notice also that the company’s choice of conservative accounting policies has the effect of depressing the company’s book value of equity. 2. What effect did Microsoft’s software†¦show more content†¦Even as reported the first quarter of 1997 represented the lowest quarterly revenue growth in the company’s history. While the timing of the company’s decision to defer rev enues appears particularly opportune, the introduction of Windows 95 to the market provides a legitimate reason for the decision. As described in the case, the company expected to integrate its Internet technologies into both Windows 95 and Office 97 â€Å"at no additional cost to customers.† Arguably, then, sales of these products were improved by these implicit promises and a portion of these revenues should be deferred into the future. However, to the extent the development costs of providing these enhancements have already been incurred and expensed under the company’s current treatment of software development costs, the company’s deferral of revenues exaggerates the mismatching of expenses with revenues. Still, the company’s policy on revenue recognition is more consistent with accrual accounting than is the company’s policy on software development expenses. 4. Describe Microsoft’s overall financial reporting strategy in 1997-99. Why di d the company adopt this strategy and why was the SEC concerned about it? 1. Hiding profits—Microsoft’s phenomenal success may have provided them with an incentive to hide their success from regulators and competitors. Given the company’s history with regulatoryShow MoreRelatedMicrosoft Econmic Down Turn 20091506 Words   |  7 PagesMicrosoft cuts jobs as profits fall US software giant Microsoft is to cut up to 5,000 jobs over the next 18 months - including 1,400 immediately - due to a slowing economy and weak spending on technology. Microsoft employs 1,200 people at Sandyford in Dublin, but a spokesperson said the cuts would have only a very minor impact in Ireland. It is believed fewer than 20 jobs will go. Microsoft said net profit fell by 11% in the second quarter of its financial year compared with a year earlierRead MoreEssay on Microsoft Case Study943 Words   |  4 Pages1. INTRODUCTION Microsoft founded in 1975 by Bill Gates. It is the largest information technology (IT) company. For the year 2005, its revenue was US$39,788 million and net income after taxes US$12,254. Nevertheless, since the early 2000s, a string of bad news had seriously undermined the future growth of Microsoft. Personal Computer (PC) operating system and basic office are the near-monopoly software in the category. Purchase of QDOS (quick and dirty operating system) from Seattle programmerRead MoreFinancial Analysis Of Microsoft Corporation971 Words   |  4 PagesFinancial Analysis of Microsoft Corporation The student learner was to pick a publicly traded company and perform a financial analysis based on the company’s financial statements. The student learner chose Microsoft Corporation. The student learner will obtain, analyze, and determine Microsoft’s financial well-being. Microsoft has better return on assets, but they can improve in other areas. Microsoft can increase profit margin, asset management and based on Microsoft s assets, and capital theyRead MoreQuickbooks Accounting Software Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pages Accounting/Finance application systems like Peachtree, Net Suite and QuickBooks let you manage your business with a little or no experience. All three application systems allow the users to manage the companies capital including bookkeeping, inventory, non-inventory service items, sales orders, purchase orders, and reports. It allows the companies to keep tracking of the financial assets and at the same time have the information the accountant needs. Using the accounting/finance application systemRead MoreQuickbooks1616 Words   |  7 Pages Accounting/Finance application systems like Peachtree, Net Suite and QuickBooks let you manage your business with a little or no experience. All three application systems allow the users to manage the companies capital including bookkeeping, inventory, non-inventory service items, sales orders, purchase orders, and reports. It allows the companies to keep tracking of the financial assets and at the same time have the information the accountant needs. Using the accounting/finance application systemRead MoreOrganizational Structure Essay examples902 Words   |  4 Pagescrucial for an organization to achieve maximum effectiveness and success. Microsoft Company, for instance, has an organizational structure consisting of board of directors who include Steve Ballmer as chief executive officer (CEO), senior leaders, executives, and technical leaders. Founded in 1975, Microsoft has grown today into a worldwide leader in software and services (Microsoft, 2009). The organizational structure of Microsoft proves to be efficient and effective. A comparison to other organizationsRead MoreCompany Profile Of Microsoft Corporation1251 Words   |  6 PagesCompany Profile Microsoft Corporation was founded on April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico(Wikipedia, 2016). As of today, it is headquartered at Redmond, Washington. It specializes in designing, developing, licensing, and supporting software products, services, and devices worldwide (Yahoo! Finance, 2016). The Company operates in five segments: Devices and Consumer (DC) Licensing, DC Hardware, DC Other, Commercial Licensing, and Commercial Other (Rueters, 2016)Read MoreBusiness Intelligence Software1165 Words   |  5 Pagesavailable once this business intelligence software is implemented. We will discuss hardware and system software that will be required to run specific business intelligence software. 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The team will also discuss how the initiative affects Microsoft financial planning. It will then go on to discuss how the plan affects

Friday, May 8, 2020

Strawberry Festival - 1144 Words

Food Practice Essay The most popular fruit in the berry world are strawberries. Strawberries are one of the most popular fruits in the world; they are popular between April and July. Strawberries not only add flavoring to foods but they are also healthy and very tasteful. There are more than 600 types of strawberries that vary in shape, size, texture, flavor and coloring. Strawberries are very elegant fruits; many use strawberries by dipping them in chocolate, smoothies, strawberry shortcakes and more. However, an event that I have attended where people have come together to share an interest in something that they all enjoy is the strawberry festival. The strawberry festival is held once a year in Troy, Ohio at their local†¦show more content†¦The festival puts together a number of athletic completion events the people could participate in during the weekend festivities. There is a big wheel race and a bed race that is held The Friday of the festival. On the Saturday of the festival starting early in the morning there is a softball tournament, volleyball, tennis shootout, pie eating contest, a children’s treasure hunt, and strawberry kid’s crawl. On Sunday a 10k run is held, a shortcake run his held, and another softball tournament is held. The shortcake run is a 2,000-meter run to troy high school. There is also a diaper derby, a Kid’Atholon, kiddie tractor pull, a talent show, a back seat driving contest, and a duck race. The strawberry festival also has a bulk of carnival rides the people can enjoy as they walk around the fairgrounds. The various amusement rides that the strawberry festival offers are the merry go round, swings, and the strawberry patch ride. The strawberry patch ride it is sort of like the spider at Kings Island. This ride was pretty much the main attraction at the strawberry fest so many children wait in line in order to ride the ride. It also was a main attraction because it fit in really well with the theme of the festival, strawberries. The festival also offered swimming, for those who want to get a little wet. There is a water park right next door to the fairground that contributes their facility to this event to help raiseShow MoreRelatedDescriptive Essay About Southwestern Quebec931 Words   |  4 Pagesknow the best of Southwestern Quebec’s cool cultural scene, breathtaking landscapes, vibrant festivals, and fantastic farms. Book your stay today. H1: Discover Natural Wonders Historic Marvels in Southwestern Quebec, Canada Content: Southwestern Quebec is home to some of the most iconic landmarks and spirited events in the country. There are plenty of outdoor thrills, amazing architecture, annual festivals, and cultural richness at every corner. From the Eastern Townships practically rubbingRead MoreHistory Of Ice Cream As Cream1614 Words   |  7 Pages000 people enjoyed. Snow- Storm Ice-Cream Festival (25th December, 2001 to 31 December, 2001) A week long ice cream festival was held simultaneously in 11 Vadilal Happiness Parlours of Gujarat. This festival was one of its kind. 71 flavors of Ice Cream, 51 Ice Cream Sundaes, Frozen Yogurts, Sorbets, Ice Mithai ice creams like Rasgulla, Gulabjamun other artisan ice creams were available at one stop. Over hundred thousand people attended this festival. Objective Of The Company Vadilal industriesRead MoreThe City Of New Orleans971 Words   |  4 Pagesexistence. In other states, people can come to a conclusion that all Louisiana natives are the same, but we vary around the state. New Orleans is different from all other cities in Louisiana for the exquisite taste of food and music, the collection of festivals, and the unfamiliar, out of space language. Now let s think? Why is New Orleans food so different from where I am from? Well, in New Orleans we have a mixture of Cajun and Creole cooks up in a pot in the back of the kitchen. Cajun food is whereRead MoreBeer Essay1054 Words   |  5 PagesBurroughs came up with the brilliant idea to have a festival based solely around Florida breweries. Now that’s a great idea, but to push the envelope a bit farther each brewery in attendance is required to bring at least two beers that are either one offs or don’t go into distribution. Basically each brewery is bringing the good stuff. I’m talking 45 breweries, two cideries, and 102 delicious beverages of the alcoholic variety. Tickets for this year’s festival, which was held on September 29th and 30th,Read MoreEssay on Concert1101 Words   |  5 Pages CONCERT REPORT #2 Beatles Z320 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;For my second concert report I thought that I would write about my only experience hearing songs of the Beatles live. The Rib America Festival was hosted by The Beatles Live Repertoire. The group dressed exactly like the Beatles, even had the same names, John, Paul, George, and Ringo. I had never heard any Beatles songs live before, so that was enough to get me off my butt. Not to mention, it was free entertainment, not a bad time atRead MoreEssay about Background and Character of T.J. Avery524 Words   |  3 Pagesof this friend ship with the two white boys, but T.J. is disgusted that Grand Mother Logan wanted to see Mr Wade W. Jamison, who is an attorney at Law. This is while he was visiting the town of Strawberry with Grand Mother Logan and the Logan children. Also while in strawberry Stacey Logan is foolishly persuaded by T.J. to go into the white mans store, which is other wise know as The Barnett Mercantile, while in the mercantile T.J. is mesmerised by the peal-handled pistolRead MoreCase Study - Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism1567 Words   |  7 PagesWine Festival† The management believed his suggestion would be beneficial and backed the concept with budget, personnel and managerial support. Event also had another purposes like creating publicity for the hotel and developing scholarship fund for students. Starting from opening cocktail reception, the festival was held for four days. The festival was divided into three sections of wine tasting and dining, with prices ranging from ï ¼â€ž50 to ï ¼â€ž180. Almost all the events during the festival wereRead MoreThe Island Of Jamaica, Jamaica1464 Words   |  6 PagesRick’s Cafà © 2) Dunn’s River Falls 3) Jamaica Bobsledding 4) Jamaican Food 5) Strawberry Hill 6) Stotchie’s 7) The caves 8) Jamaica’s Music 9) Rose Hall 10) Appleton Estate Rum Tour (â€Å"Jamaica Top 10 List†) Jamaica has many festivals throughout the year. They have at least one festival/event every single month from January to December. A few of these festivals/events include Accompong Maroon Festival, Negril Fat Tire Festival, Hague Agricultural Show, and the Jamaica Orchid Society Show. Most of theirRead MoreCanadian Culture Essay examples1469 Words   |  6 Pagesactivity would come of it. And that it did, Canadas first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede, was first established in 1902 (par.10). Country music is also another popular artistic culture in the prairies and can be seen at one of the largest country music festivals, Big Valley jamboree, that takes place in southern Alberta every year and attracts thousands of people from all across Canada. Another region to look at isRead MoreCulture and Cuicine in Canada1492 Words   |  6 Pageswould come of it. And that it did, Canada s first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede, was first established in 1902 (par.10). Country music is also another popular artistic culture in the prairies and can be seen at one of the largest country music festivals, Big Valley jamboree, that takes place in southern Alberta every year and attracts thousands of people from all across Canada. Another region to look at is the Eastern Maritimes which includes the smaller provinces of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theory of Holism Free Essays

The theory of General Systems and Holism Biophysically model suggests that the understanding of the illness from the perspective of the mind Is crucial to the complex nature of health. To have a more Len- depth view over the health experiences and the nature of Illness one must add psychological and social factors to the biomedical explanation (Morrison, Bennett, 2012). For example, if we intend to analyze depression only from the biological point IEEE, we would only identify its biomedical causes: the genetics of depression. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Holism or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, depression, as supported by the research, can be caused by multiple causes such as traumatic event experienced by the individual at the early age, difficult social context, as for instance, lack of social support, etc. Analysis becomes much more complex, but at the same time more profound and complete, when utilizing biophysically model. The development of the biophysically model by Engel in 1974 was contributed to through such theories, as the theory of General Systems and Holism. The theory of General Systems Insists that for a complete understanding of processes, which are occurring Inside a human being, there Is a need to not only look at the Interrelations of enzymes In a cell (biological approach but also think about conscious (cognitive) and unconscious (psychoanalytical) How to cite Theory of Holism, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Count Of Monte Cristo Title The Count Of Monte Cristo Type Of Lit

The Count Of Monte Cristo Title: The Count of Monte Cristo Type of Literary work: Historic and romantic novel Theme: The Count of Monte Cristo is a very powerful book. So powerful in fact, that was controversial when it was first released. The Catholic church in France condemned it because of its powerful message it presented the reader. This theme was one of revenge and vengeance. Monte Cristo had two goals- to reward those who were kind to him and his aging father, and to punish those responsible for his imprisonment and suffering. For the latter, he plans slow and painful punishment. To have spent fourteen years barely subsisting in a dungeon demands cruel and prolonged castigation. Setting: The Count of Monte Cristo is set within the nineteenth century of France in large and populous cities. This was a time of great disruption. There was confusion all over the land in regards to who led France, King Louis or Napoleon. The citizens of France became divided by the two ruling parti es. Royalists and the Bonapartist cut at each others throats in order to declare that their ruler was supreme. This situation has a profound effect on the events of the story. Dantes' enemies used the rivalry between the two parties in order to convince the Royalists that Edmond is a Bonapartist, therefore it is the basis for his arrest and inevitable captivity in the Chateau D'If.. Basic Plot: The Count of Monte Cristo is a story about a sailor, Edmond Dantes, who was betrayed during the prime of his life and career by the jealousy of his friends. His shipmate, Danglars, coveted his designation as the captain of the mighty Pharon. Ferdinand Mondego wished to wed Mercedes, who was affianced to Edmond. Danglars and Ferdinand wrote a letter accusing Edmond of carrying a letter from Elba to the Bonapartist committee in Paris. Caderousse, a neighbor, learned of the plot but kept silent. On his wedding day Edmond was arrested and taken before a deputy named Villefort, a political apostat e, who, to protect himself, had Edmond secretly imprisoned in the deepest dungeons of the Chateau D'If. There Dantes' incarceration was secured by the plotting of his enemies outside the prison, particularly towards Villefort, who wished to cover up his own father's connections with the Bonapartists. Dantes suffered for fourteen grueling years. While in prison, he was determined to escape and began digging a tunnel in hopes that it would lead to freedom. During this exercise, he met an elderly inmate named Abbe Faria whose attempt to dig his way to his salvation had led him only to Edmond's cell. The two meet daily and an incredible relationship flourished. The old man taught Edmond history, mathematics, and languages. In Edmond's fourteenth year, Faria became mortally ill. The wise elder told Edmond where to find a massive buried fortune. When Faria finally did die, his body was placed in a burial sac. Edmond seized the opportunity of escaping and replaced Faria's corpse with himse lf. Jailers threw the sack into the sea which allowed Dantes to escape. He is rescued by a passing ship which gives him a position on the boat. After paying homage for the noble act, Dantes recovered the buried treasure and became extremely wealthy. He returned as the mysterious Count of Monte Cristo and dazzled all of Paris with his extreme wealth and social graces and also he ingeniously managed to be introduced to the cream of French society, among who he goes unrecognized. But, Monte Cristo, in contrariety, recognized all of his enemies, which now are all powerful and influential men. Therefore, he was slowly plotting the ruin of the four men who had caused him to be sent to the Chateau D'If. Ferdinand had married Mercedes and was now the Count de Morcef. Monte Cristo released information to the press that proved that Morcef is a traitor, and Morcef is ruined socially. Then Monte Cristo destroyed Morcef's relationship with his family, whom he adored. When they leave him, he was so distraught that he committed suicide. To revenge himself on Caderousse, Monte Cristo easily trapped Caderousse because of his voracious greed. Monte Cristo awakened this greed with the gift

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Pro

Pro Anti-social behavior is the knowing or unknowing disregard for others, which leads to intent to damage lives or negligence. Persistently, this behavior leads to anti-social Personality Disorder. Pro-social behavior is the antonym for anti-social behavior. It refers to a comforting regard for other peoples’ welfare and consequently society. People with pro-social behavior volunteer more and are generous contributors to good causes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Behavior specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Factors Influencing Pro-Social/Anti-Social Behavior Media Media plays a critical role in developing social voluntary giving. Studies show that children, who watched children related channels and programs at an early age of less than five, develop a giving habit. They also volunteer more than kids who watch mainstream media. Therefore, it is clear that TV content, which promotes violen ce and social misdeeds, fosters anti-social behavior. Internet is the newest source of all information. Social media is a mixture of people with different intentions. A child may get exposure to unwanted material easily. This is the same case with all other internet content. Too much focus on violence, killing and inhumane acts in blockbuster films is another factor that leads to anti-social behavior. All these are harmful to a child’s young mind (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004). Family and Social Life This is another critical area of interest. The role of individual members of the family and the birth-position are also critical factors. Firstborns are generally responsible for others compared to lastborns. However, lastborns from a family with a volunteer habit tend to copy and follow the same route. Social life, on the other hand, defines educational life from the onset. Psychologists argue that children who grow up in a generally philanthropic environment tend to volunteer as adults. This environment is only possible where children invite each other for birthdays, sleepovers and other social gatherings (Valsiner, 2007). Others Genetic factors can also influence social behavior. A person may be born with such tendencies. Secondly, environmental stressors may reduce a person’s regard for others and resort to bad behavior. For example, extreme poverty promotes selfishness. The child grows up knowing that he has too little to share. An upbringing with affluence, which suddenly changes confuses a child and could lead to anti-social behavior. A need to feel acceptable after a life of unacceptability in family is another factor (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004). Findings and Suggestions Social media is a big contributor to behavior. Some people have an anti-social inclination, which is natural. However, this behavior grows. Therefore, media should lay a huge emphasis on ensuring that content does not advocate for or foster anti-social behavior. Governments sh ould formulate policies geared towards making media responsible. For example, filtration of certain content at times. The upbringing of a child should entail more than just parental passiveness. Involvement of both parents is a plus in this quest. Children who grow up with both parents exhibit more social behavior than those growing up in single parent families. It is important for the child’s social maturity that both parents are present during childhood. (Valsiner, 2007).Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Helliwell, J.F Putnam, R.D. (2004). The Social Context of Well-Being. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B Biological Sciences, 1(359): 1435-46. Valsiner, J. (2007). Personal Culture and Conduct of Value. Journal of Social, Evolutionary Cultural Psychology, 1(2): 59–65. Pro Abortion is termination of pregnancy before its maturity. Pro-choice advocates for women right to decide whether to abort or not, whereas prolife advocate for no abortion. However, both support termination of pregnancy for medical reasons.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pro-life and Pro-choice Sides of Abortion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pro-choice are of the opinion that a child should start enjoying human rights after birth. Their view is that when the unborn is in the mother’s womb, then the mother should have the right to decide whether to keep the pregnancy or not (Mangel, 1988). This paper discusses the two sides of pro-life and pro-choice. Thesis Life is precious; it is every person’s reasonability to ensure it is protected. When a man and woman make love and conceive, a life is created in the body of the mother. There are two abortions that can happen, natural abortions; which is a medical condition and intentional termination of pregnancy by a mother. Intentional termination is not because of any danger but on feeling by the pregnant woman that she wants to terminate the pregnancy. Killing is illegal. After conception, the mother carries a life. She can learn this through movements, unrests in the stomach and wastes from the foetus. After conception, a woman carries a living human being who is entitled to human rights as if living on the physical world. The mother is an agent to carry another life. Sometimes abortion can take place; this is when the life of the mother is at danger because of the pregnancy otherwise, termination of pregnancy is illegal (Sedgh, Henshaw, Singh, Bankole Drescher, 2007). In case of rape, there have been debates whether abortion should be allowed. The debate follows the same principle of life, that is life is precious should be respected. The child formed because of rape is innocent. It should enjoy human rights since it is not responsible of the actions that led to its formation. Prolife are of the view that using morning pills and contraceptives’ is a method of aborting since they aim at flashing some conceptions that have taken place after an intercourse. When women are given the right to terminate a pregnancy, they are likely to misuse these rights thus; the right should not be given. A Country’s constitution is supposed to protect life, after conception, although the life formed cannot be seen by naked eyes, it can be proved existing. During pregnancy, by the time a foetus is in the third week, the heart starts beating. By the end of the first trimester, the foetus has developed arms, legs among other physical features of a human being. The child is still unborn but when scanned, it has human features.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The only difference that the child has with human beings is that it is not yet born; otherwise, it is a human being. It thus has rights to enjoy human rights. One such right is the right to life. Supporters of abortion are of the opinion that a foetus is a tissue in the body of the mother that can be removed if unwanted; they fail to understand that human body is made of tissues just like the one in the foetus. Different parts of the world have different religions. One of the most dominant and common feature in all religions is respect for life. In Christianity and Muslimism, which are the most dominant religions in the world, they believe that God has the power to oversee life. They are of the opinion that God is the sole giver of life and is the only one who have power to terminate it when he want. The biological believe that life starts at conception should thus be respected as it goes in line with the teachings of the two religions. Abortion whether the pregnancy resulted from rape or whether is its unwanted should n ot be allowed. Medical conditions are an exemption. Antithesis The reason behind illegalising of abortion is that human life starts at conception. However, embryo or foetus is not a person thus human life does not start at conception. Characterises that can define a human being lack in a foetus and thus arguing that a foetus is a person is wrong. A woman has the right of control over her health including deciding whether to keep a pregnancy or terminating it. It is only logical to respect the rights of the person who can be seen and not bother with the unseen person. The unseen baby should not be given the right to life since he has not been born. The child has not lived; only exists in someone and no two lives can live in one or no two rights of the same nature that should be accorded to the same person. The mother should be given the right to terminate a pregnancy not only on medical grounds but also as matter of choice. The aborting mother and the doctor assisting in the abortion should be protected by a country’s constitution. Another augment is that the enjoyment of a person’s rights should be to the extent that he does not limit someone else from enjoying his/hers. When a mother does not need a child, then saying that the child should stay because it has rights limits the enjoyment of mother rights thus termination should be allowed at the discretion of the mother.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Pro-life and Pro-choice Sides of Abortion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Contraceptives and morning pills should not be seen as a method of aborting but should be interpolated as pregnancy prevention methods. With this believe, if a mother feels the need to avoid formation of a foetus, then she should be given the right to do so. The unborn baby is, as a tissue in a woman, which the body can function without thus terminating the pregnancy, is not killing; it is removing a tissue that is not wanted from the body. For a person to enjoy human rights, he should have developed a certain personality that can be hurt by violation of his rights. An unborn child has neither feelings nor personality and thus arguing that the child should enjoy human right is not correct. Cases of rape have resulted in heated debates. Supporters of abortion are of the opinion that the pregnancy came about not as a will of the mother but a misfortune. They argue that if the mother delivers such a child, she is likely to hate the child as it will remind her of the act, thus, such a pregnancy should be terminated. Supporters of life argue that the child should not be punished because of mistakes done by other people. The child is innocent thus should not be aborted (Wolf, 1997). Synthesis Life is precious should be protected. Biologically, life starts when an egg meets sperms. This is the perception that pro-life have. The truth is that there is a change that occurs in a womanâ €™s body which if nurtured leads to life. However, the main augment is whether at this point the life in the woman should enjoy human rights. Pro-choice argues that life and personhood are two different things. According to them for a person to enjoy human rights, he must have feelings and personhood, which lacks in the case of a foetus (OBrien, 2005). Personality of the person can only be realized after birth, thus the embryo should not be recognized as a human being before birth. Pro-life counter this argument by arguing that when a pregnancy is terminated, there is life destroyed which has its own personality only that it is not living in the physical world. They argue that an unborn have feeling, they become angry and are affected by the mothers external environment. They illustrate this by giving the example that if a mother is angry or restless; the child kicks in the womb. This is an indication that it is affected by the feeling that the mother is having. What should be p rotected is not the personality of the baby but the life that is holy. This seems to hold more weight. Another aspect that the pro-choice argues, this is the fact that the unborn has no enough size, ability to feel pain, viability, self-awareness, and thus cannot be granted the right of personhood. Pro-life sees this argument from a different angle that human life is precious whether it is the life of unborn or born. They have equal rights, which should be respected (Fergusson, Boden Horwood, 2007).Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A foetus is the initial stage of life; no person could be living in this world if he did not undergo through the foetus stage. Thus, foetus is life at the earliest stage it should thus be respected. Life is a continuous stage where human beings learn different things as they develop thus a foetus is in a silent learning stage that takes place in a mother. It should not be aborted as this will be aborting a life. A foetus cannot fight for its rights, since he is in the unseen world. However, its existence is holy it should be respected. Prolife and pro-choice come into an agreement that if the life of the mother is in danger, then abortion should be allowed. It should though be the last resort and conducted by an experienced medical officer. In these cases, the doctor and the mother are protected by constitution of a country as well as international medical practicing ethics laws. After a medical abortion, the mother should undergo psychological counselling to overcome abortion traum as (Avalos, 2003). The decision to terminate a pregnancy should only be made by medical practitioner to save the life of the mother. Conclusion In the battle for or against abortion, no single side wins; they both have concrete arguments. The pro-life have believed that life starts at conception whereas pro-choice believe that life starts at birth. One thing that gives the pro-life an upper hand is the psychological stress that a woman who has aborted has whether it is medical or intentionally abortion. Both pro-life and pro-choice agree that for medical purposes, abortion should take place. References Avalos, L. (1999). Hindsight and the abortion experience: what abortion means to women years later. Gender Issues, 17(2), 35-57. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6hid=6sid=1fb36a06-a20d-4dbf-b039-d0b2660cd9e1%40sessionmgr112 Fergusson, D., Boden, J., Horwood, L. (2007). Abortion among young women and subsequent life outcomes. Perspectives on Sexu al Reproductive Health, 39(1), 6-12. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6hid=116sid=0a3e9112-512e-463e-bc24-e997aceed4ed%40sessionmgr114bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnhAN=17355376. OBrien, D. (2005). No to Abortion: Posture, Not Policy. America, 192(19), 7. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6hid=4sid=ca28aea0-714a-4085-8dfa 14534bca678c%40sessionmgr15bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=f5hAN=17123677. Mangel, C. (1988). Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework. American Journal Of Law Medicine, 14(1), 69-108. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4hid=4sid=6d34a16e-8933-4459-b43a a93acf2b0bbc%40sessionmgr12bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnhAN=3068986. Sedgh, G., Henshaw, S., Singh, S., Bankole, A., Drescher, J. (2007). Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends. International Family Planning Perspectives, 33(3), 106-116. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost .com/ehost/detail?vid=3hid=4sid=d3f03cba-00a8-4861-9fa3-b21da3c1d158%40sessionmgr11bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnhAN=18093038. Wolf, N. (1997). Pro-choice and pro-life. Human Life Review, 23(3), 60. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4hid=116sid=1df48f84-edc0-43f1-8dd4-6a9345209724%40sessionmgr11bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=f5hAN=9709301738

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Pros and Cons of School Uniforms

Pros and Cons of School Uniforms They come in soft yellow polo shirts. They come in white blouses. They come in plaid skirts or jumpers. They come in pleated pants, navy or khaki. They are all made of durable fabric. They come in all sizes. They are school uniforms. And despite their name,  uniform, which means remaining the same in all cases and at all times, school uniforms can still look different from one student to another. Over the past twenty years, school uniforms have become a big business. The Statistic Brain Website (2017) counts that 23% of all public and private schools have a uniform policy. That means there are annual school uniform sales of over $1.3 million annually, with the average cost of $249/student. School Uniforms Defined Uniforms used at schools can range from the formal to the informal. Some schools that have implemented them have chosen what one usually thinks of in connection to private or parochial schools: nice trousers and white shirts for boys, jumpers and white shirts for girls. However, most public schools are turning to something more casual and more acceptable to parents and students: khakis or jeans and knit shirts of varying colors. The latter appears to be more affordable too because they can be used outside of school. Many school districts that have implemented uniforms have provided some sort of financial assistance for families that can not afford the extra expense. Pros of School Uniforms â€Å"Uniform of a soldier and uniform of a student both are equally needed for the nation.†Ã¢â‚¬â€¢Ã‚  Amit Kalantri, (author) Wealth of Words​ Some of the reason offered to support school uniforms are the following: Preventing gang colors, etc. in schoolsDecreasing violence and theft because of clothing and shoesInstilling discipline among studentsReducing need for administrators and teachers to be clothes police (for example, determining whether shorts are too short, etc.)Reducing distractions for studentsInstilling a sense of communityHelping schools recognize those who do not belong on campus The arguments for school uniforms hinge on their effectiveness in practice. Anecdotal information from administrators in schools that have implemented uniform policies point to the fact that they do have a positive effect on discipline and the school. Note that all of the following were from middle schools. In Long Beach (1995), officials found that the year after their mandatory program with parental opt-out was implemented, overall school crime decreased by 36%. More recently, a  2012  study found that after a year of having a uniform policy at a middle school in  Nevada, school police data showed a 63% decrease in police log reports. In Seattle, Washington, which has a mandatory policy with an opt-out saw a decrease in truancy and tardies. They had also not had a reported incident of theft. As a final example from Baltimore, Maryland, Rhonda Thompson, an official from a middle school that has a voluntary policy noticed a sense of seriousness about work. Whether any of these results can be directly linked to school uniforms is hard to say. However, it can be said that something has changed to make the officials take notice. We can not discount the coincidence of school uniforms with these changes either. If you would like more information about schools that have implemented uniform policies, see the Department of Educations Manual on School Uniforms. Cons of School Uniforms â€Å"[On school uniforms] Dont these schools do enough damage making all these kids think alike, now they have to make them look alike too? -George Carlin, comedian Some of the arguments made against uniforms include: Students and parents argue that uniforms violate their freedom of expression (see the next page of this article for more about what the Supreme Court has to say on this)Some students might choose to express their individuality through other means such as body piercing which is harder to regulate.Parents raise concerns about the cost.Because uniforms single out students as being from one school, this might lead to trouble with students from other schools.Families fear it might interfere with religious clothing like yarmulkes.A new policy for school uniforms can be time-consuming and difficult to enforce. There are concerns that uniforms are often associated with low-income, urban school settings. The Institute of Educational Science National Center  for Educational Statistics noted that in  2013–14: A higher percentage of schools where 76 percent or more of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch required school uniforms than did schools where lower percentages of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Other concerns have been raised by David L. Brunsma, an associate professor of sociology at the University of Missouri-Columbia. He analyzed data from schools nationwide, and published research with co-author, Kerry Ann Rockquemore that concluded that 10th-grade public school students who wore uniforms did no better than those who did not in attendance, behavior, or drug use. Conclusion: The effectiveness of uniforms will be a subject of continuing research as more schools look for solutions to socio-economic problems of attendance, discipline, bullying, student motivation, family engagement, or economic need.  And while a school uniform may be only a small part of the solution for all of these ills, they do solve one major issue, the dress code violation. As  Principal Rudolph Saunders  explains to Education Week (1/12/2005) that before school uniforms, â€Å"I would spend 60 to 90 minutes a day on dress-code violations. Of course, there are always those students who will try to alter a uniform for individuality. Skirts can be rolled up, pants can be dropped below the waist, and (inappropriate?) messages on T-shirts can still be read through issued button-down shirts. In short, there is no guarantee that  student wearing a school uniform will always meet the dress code standard. Supreme Court Rulings In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School (1969), the court said that a students freedom of expression in school must be protected unless it would seriously interfere with the requirements of appropriate discipline. In the dissenting opinion written by Justice Hugo Black, he said, If the time has come when pupils of state-supported schools ... can defy and flout orders of school officials to keep their minds on their own schoolwork, it is the beginning of a new revolutionary era of permissiveness in this country fostered by the judiciary. Students are still protected under Tinker. However, with an increase in school violence and gang-related activities, the political climate seems to have turned more conservative, and the Supreme Court has begun to return many decisions back to the discretion of the local school board. The issue of school uniforms itself, however, has not yet been dealt with by the Supreme Court. Schools must educate students in a safe environment. Over time, education has often slipped away as the main focus of schools. As we have unfortunately seen, school safety is such an enormous issue that it is hard to come up with policies that truly work without turning a school into a prison camp. After the events at Columbine High School in 1999 where students were singled out partially for what they wore, and after numerous thefts and murders over designer shoes, it is obvious why many school districts want to institute uniforms. We must realize that learning cannot take place without some sense of decorum and discipline. Possibly instituting school uniforms might help bring back that sense of decorum and allow teachers to do what they are hired to do: teach. Parent and Student Support for Uniforms Many schools have in fact made the choice to have students wear school uniforms. Until the Supreme Court rules otherwise, this is entirely up to the school district. However, they do still have to follow state and federal anti-discrimination laws when they make their polices.Following are some ideas to make the use of uniforms easier to accept by students and parents:Make uniforms more casual - jeans and a knit shirtAllow students an outlet for their own expression: buttons to support political candidates, but not gang related paraphernaliaProvide financial assistance to those parents who can not afford the uniformsAccommodate students religious beliefs. This is required by the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.Make your program voluntary if community pressure is too largeInstitute an opt-out provision. Not including this would probably cause a court to rule against your program unless there is proof that lesser measures are ineffective.Make uniforms an integral part of the school sa fety program.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

A Just War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

A Just War - Essay Example The power of modern means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition. These are the traditional elements enumerated in what is called the "just war" doctrine. The evaluation of these conditions for moral legitimacy belongs to the prudential judgment of those who have responsibility for the common good. The first question the definition brings is who has "the responsibility for the common good" This is Catholic Doctrine so one would assume that the leadership of the Catholic Church is responsible for defining it for the Catholic community. The doctrine does put the responsibility on the leadership of the Catholic Church and that would be the Pope. But, the Catholic Church turns that responsibility back to the people when they ask the community to keep them informed (Catholic Answers). The Pope and the Church pass some of this responsibility to the members of the Church by educating the people of the church (using the Catechism). The idea of condoning a war would seem to be in direct conflict with many of the scriptures and teachings of the Catholic Church and the Bible. ... This gives the impression that when challenged one should not react in an aggressive manner (according to the Bible). This contradicts Catholic doctrine that allows for the evaluation of war as just or unjust. To condone war would mean acceptance, to some extent, of Catholic Doctrine over the writings of the Bible. In order to evaluate the Iraq war as just or unjust according to Catholic Doctrine (Catechism) the teachings of the Bible need to be set aside as not relevant. The Catholic Church is assumed to have evaluated it all for its congregation and given its rulings in its Catechism (like a judge interprets the law when making a ruling in a court case). Evaluating the Iraq War will be done assuming the Catholic Catechism is the law. 2. Just or Unjust War The first part of the Catechism to be examined is this: "the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave, and certain."(Catholic Catechism paragraph 2309). This question challenges whether the Iraqi leadership (or the country itself) is expected to cause lasting, grave, and certain damage to the community of nations. During the first Gulf War it was evident that Iraq (the country) intended to take over Kuwait and cause great harm to Israel and any other country that was part of the coalition forces that liberated Kuwait. When the World Trade Center was bombed it was clear that it was an attack on the United Statesbut initially unclear who was responsible. The men who carried out the attacks on 9-11 were from the Middle East and were apparently funded by Osama Bin Laden. "Osama bin Laden Promises More Attacks on United States" (ABC News,